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HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
Networking and Connectivity Posted by Jason on Sunday May 26, @01:44PM
from the 01100111 dept.
If you have ever wondered why a TCP/IP address such as the class C address 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 can also be written as 192.168.1.0/24, then read on and I will explain it to you!

In this post I will try to dispel the mystery of binary (otherwise known as base 2) and explain why it is important in subnetting. Learning it is not very complicated, and it's very good information to know.

[Understanding decimal - Base 10]

The first thing you must know is that the common number system used world wide is the decimal system (otherwise known as base 10). What makes the decimal system a base 10 system is that it is based on grouping numbers by 10's. It is believed that the system evolved because we have ten fingers and ten toes which over the years we have used for counting. I use mine all the time (grin). We name the ten digits: zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine.

The decimal system has a 1's place, a 10's place, a 100's place, a 1000's place and so on. We say the number places are grouped by 10's because multiplying each number place by 10 gives you the next number place. So: 1x10=10 (the 10's place), 10x10=100 (the 100's place), 100x10=1000 (the 1000's place) etc.

Let's look at the decimal number 103 by place.

103 <- read from right to left

We have a 3 in the 1's place
We have a 0in the 10's place
We have a 1 in the 100's place

Thus: 100+0+3=103

By now you probably feel like you have attended Kindergarten for the second time in your life? Sorry about that but it is very important that you understand the concept of what a number system is, and what it is based on before we look at binary.


[Understanding binary - base 2]

Binary is a base 2 system, and thus groups numbers by 2's and not by 10's like the decimal system. We name the two digits: zero and one. The binary system has a 1's place, a 2's place, a 4's place, an 8's place, a 16's place and so on. We say the number places are grouped by 2's because multiplying each number place by 2 gives you the next number place. So: 1x2=2 (the 2's place), 2x2=4 (the 4's place), 4x2=8 (the 8's place), 8x2=16 (the 16's place) etc.

Let's look at the decimal number 103 in binary format:

01100111 <- read from right to left

We have a 1 in the 1's place
We have a 1 in the 2's place
We have a 1 in the 4's place
We have a 0 in the 8's place
We have a 0 in the 16's place
We have a 1 in the 32's place
We have a 1 in the 64's place
We have a 0 in the 128's place

Thus: 0+64+32+0+0+4+2+1=103

Okay, Let's test your skills. Here is a list of binary numbers, try converting them to decimal and check your answers at the end of this post.

10000000
11000000
11100000
01000000
10000011
10010001
11111111


If you were able to convert these numbers to decimal then congratulations! You're ready to move on to the next section.


[Understanding a subnet mask]

Now that you understand what binary is, let's have a look at our two subnet masks from the beginning of my post:

192.168.1.0 / 255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/24


The concept of a subnet mask is simple. You have a network and you have hosts on the network (anything with an IP address is a host). The subnet mask determines what portion of the TCP/IP address represents your network and what portion can be used for your hosts. Because I am a simple person, I think of it like this; The network number represents the street I live on, and the host portion is used for the numbers on all the houses on my street.

A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 means that the first three octets of the address will be used for the network, and thus our network number is 192.168.1. This means we can have 254 computers on this network, because the fourth octet is not being used by the network portion of the address. We know this because of the 0 in the subnet mask (255.255.255.0).

We call each of the number sections an octet because we think of them in binary, and there are eight possible bits in each section. Eight bits is an octet. 11111111 in binary is 255 in decimal (did you do the conversions?). So our decimal subnet mask 255.255.255.0 displayed in binary is going to be:

11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

If you count all the ones, you will find that there are 24 of them. Now look at the subnet mask examples again.

192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/24


Do you see why both subnet masks are the same? The number 24 is the number of bits used in the network portion of the address, and is short-hand for writing the address/subnet mask combination. It becomes important to understand this when you start dividing your network into multiple sub networks.


[Understanding Subnetting]

Before reading this section, you should have a good understanding of what a subnet mask is and how binary bits represent the subnet mask.

Simply put, subnetting is dividing your network into multiple sub networks. To go back to my silly example about houses and streets, subnetting gives you multiple streets in your neighborhood.

There are two methods for dividing your network into multiple sub networks; One is to simply change your network numbers keeping the same subnet mask. The other is to subnet your network into smaller sub networks.

Keeping the same mask:
Your network could be divided into two or more networks by changing the network portion of the address such as 192.168.1 and 192.168.2 and keeping the same subnet mask.

Example:
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0

Doing this would give you two separate networks with 254 hosts per network. This is a very common method of dealing with multiple networks. However, back in the good old days you had to pay for every IP address you used, and if you had 25 computers on your network you probably would not want to pay for 254 addresses! The answer to the problem is...subnetting.

Subnetting a network:
Subnetting is when you use bits from the host portion of your address as part of your network number. This let's you subdivide your network at the cost of host addresses, which is great if you're paying for every host IP address. It will save you money because you pay for fewer TCP/IP addresses. Confused? Here is where understanding binary is important.

Lets look at a new subnet mask:
255.255.255.224

As you can see in the fourth octet, some of the host portion of this subnet mask is now being used for part of the network address. Which means we are now using some of the binary bits in the fourth octet for our network numbers, and that gives us fewer hosts than our old mask (which gave us 254), but gives us more networks (which is why we call it subnetting).

How can we tell how many networks and hosts per network this new subnet mask will give us? Well... we shall have to use some of our newly acquired binary skills.

The first task is to find out how many bits in the fourth octet are being used? The decimal number is 224, what is the decimal number 224 as represented in binary?

The decimal number 224 in binary is:
11100000

We have a 0 in the 1's place
We have a 0 in the 2's place
We have a 0 in the 4's place
We have a 0 in the 8's place
We have a 0 in the 16's place
We have a 1 in the 32's place
We have a 1 in the 64's place
We have a 1 in the 128's place

Thus: 128+64+32+0+0+0+0+0=224

So our complete subnet mask in binary is:
1111111.11111111.11111111.11100000

We now know that three bits from the fourth octet are used. How can we tell how many sub networks we're going to have? This requires some math- sorry. The standard formula is: 2n-2, where n is the number of bits being used from the host portion of our subnet mask.

Note: We subtract 2 networks (the first and last subnets) from the total unless we have equipment that supports IP Subnet-Zero in which case we use the formula 2n - please see my addendum at the end of this post for more details

The standard formula for three bits is:
23-2=6

In simpler terms:
(2x2x2)-2=6

So our network is sub divided into 6 networks. Next, we want to know what the network numbers are, and how many hosts we can have on each of the 6 networks?

What is the first subnet? Let's have a look at the bits in our fourth octet again. The bit that gives us the answer is the (1) closest to the first zero, and in this case it is the 3rd bit from the left.

11100000

The 3rd bit will start our first network, and the 3rd bit is in the 32's place (remember binary). Start adding the value 32 to itself six times to get the six network numbers.

Note: A quicker way to find our starting network number is to subtract our mask from 256.
256-224=32

Here are our standard network numbers:

32
64
96
128
160
192


Here are our network numbers using IP Subnet-Zero. Notice that there are 8 subnets instead of 6. The newer formula is 2n and we start with network zero. The formula for 3 bits is 23=8 so we have 8 subnets.

0
32
64
96
128
160
192
224

A better way to display our standard network numbers is:

192.168.1.32
192.168.1.64
192.168.1.96
192.168.1.128
192.168.1.160
192.168.1.192

Here are our network numbers again, this time using IP Subnet-Zero and the newer formula 2n

192.168.1.0
192.168.1.32
192.168.1.64
192.168.1.96
192.168.1.128
192.168.1.160
192.168.1.192
192.168.1.224

The host addresses will fall between the network numbers, so we will have 30 hosts per network. You're probably wondering why it's not 31? The answer is that the last address of each subnet is used as the broadcast address for that subnet.

Example:
Subnet:192.168.1.32 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range: 192.168.1.33 through 192.168.1.62 (30 hosts)
Subnet Broadcast Address:192.168.1.63

Quiz:
Let's test your skills- write the address range and broadcast address for the following subnet. We will assume that we are NOT using IP Subnet-Zero. You will find the answer at the end of this post.

Subnet: 192.168.1.128 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range?
Subnet Broadcast Address?

If we we're paying for our TCP/IP addresses, we would only pay for one network and host combination, thus paying for 30 hosts and not 254. It could mean some real savings, it also frees up the remaining addresses for other organizations to use.

Let's look at another subnet mask:
255.255.255.240

How many bits are used from the host portion? To find this out, we need to know how the decimal number 240 is represented in binary.

The answer is:
11110000

So four bits are taken from the host portion of our mask. We do the same math as before:

24-2=14

In simpler terms:
(2x2x2x2)-2=14

We will have 14 sub networks, and what will the network numbers be? Look at the fourth bit, it's in the 16's place:
11110000

Note: A quicker way to find our starting network number is to subtract the value of our mask from 256. So: 256-240=16

Start adding 16 to itself- fourteen times to get all 14 network numbers:

16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224


A better way to display our subnets is:

192.168.1.16
192.168.1.32
192.168.1.48
192.168.1.64
192.168.1.80
192.168.1.96
192.168.1.112
192.168.1.128
192.168.1.144
192.168.1.160
192.168.1.176
192.168.1.192
192.168.1.208
192.168.1.224


The host addresses fall between the network numbers. So we will have 14 host addresses on each of our 14 sub networks (remember: the last or 15th address is the broadcast address for that subnet).

If you had a small company with 10 hosts and needed to have a static IP address for all of your hosts, you would be assigned a network/subnet mask and a valid IP address range.

Here is an example of what that might look like:

Network: 205.112.10.16/.255.255.255.240
Address Range: 205.112.10.17 through 205.112.10.30
Subnet Broadcast Address: 205.112.10.31


[Answers to Binary Conversions]

10000000 = 128
11000000 = 192
11100000 = 224
01000000 = 64
10000011 = 131
10010001 = 145
11111111 = 255



[Answer to Subnet Question]

Subnet:192.168.1.128 / 255.255.255.224
Address Range: 192.168.1.129 through 192.168.1.158
Subnet Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.159


[Conclusion]

I was explaining the details of binary to a friend of mine when I got the idea to write this post. I hope you had as much fun reading it as I had writing it? Although it is not directly related to FreeBSD, I think it is very good information to know.


IMPORTANT ADDENDUM

Many people have posted concerns about why the first and last subnets were not used in any of the examples in my original article. What happened to them? Did they get scared and run away? The answer is simple- nothing happend to them it's just that some older routing equipment and software does not support the use of the first and last subnets. This is documented in the older TCP/IP doc rfc 950. The newer standard outlined in rfc 1812 allows for the use of the first and last subnets- making it the current standard in IPv4 subnetting.

It's only in the last couple of years that Cisco routers enable this feature by default, which they call "IP Subnet-Zero". Prior to that the default on Cisco routers was to not use them.

As far as I know Microsoft still doesn't use them in their exams. They reference the 2n-2 formula for figuring the number of subnets just like my article. However, if you want to use them, or are asked about them, simply use 2n for the number of available subnetted networks and start your subnetting with network 0.

The last Cisco exam I took asked me about subnetting with and without IP Subnet-Zero so I had to really be on my toes and figure it out both ways depending on the question.


I hope this helps!

If you found this article useful, then you may want to read a copy of my new book Cisco Routers for the Small Business published by Apress in 2009.

Cheers,
Jason

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    The Fine Print: The following comments are owned by whoever posted them.
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    Over 10 comments listed. Printing out index only.
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by air1 on Tuesday May 28, @03:27PM
    Congratulations for this excellent explanation, I hardly ever come accross something this concise.

    I hope to see more of that soon, more on TCP/IP.
    By the way is there a straightforward way to determine one's mask address from his IP address?

    Just want to look up some of the guys port scanning my box.


    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Scott on Friday June 14, @06:16PM
    Nice way to explain it. It's very rare that people break things down properly. Usually in between there are examples the complex the matters and don't really provide real examples. YOUR'S DID! I'm still waiting for books to be published in this manner. I liked the color coded correlation between items of reference. nice. Thanks.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Lou M on Monday June 17, @02:46PM
    This is an excellent explanation of a subject that confounds many new and novice Sys Admins. What I am wondering about though is:

    The host addresses will fall between the network numbers, so we will have 30 hosts per network. You're probably wondering why it's not 31? The answer is that the last address of each subnet is used as the broadcast address for that subnet.

    So if I understand this correctly by creating a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224 I haven't limited myself to 32 IP adresses (which is what I always thought.)

    So what have I done? I have created several 30 IP networks?
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by MIke Fulwell on Friday September 13, @06:23AM
    Brilliant. Clearly explained something that I was never quite sure about. Thanks.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Mantis 2k on Wednesday October 16, @10:59PM
    So for the /27 subnet, why couldn't you add a 7th network of: 192.168.1.224 Recently I received this very network and subnet for use on my network by my ISP. Thanks!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Louis on Monday October 21, @10:24AM
    Jason,
    Thank you so much for this post!!! I am in a MCSA/MCSE class where the teacher blistered over this topic. I left with my head spinning. Your explanations are clear, concise and most important, effective. I would take a class from you any day and twice on Sundays.
    Thanks Again,
    Louis
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Louis on Monday October 21, @10:32AM
    Jason,
    Thank you so much for this post!!! I am in a MCSA/MCSE class where the teacher blistered over this topic. I left with my head spinning. Your explanations are clear, concise and most important, effective. I would take a class from you any day and twice on Sundays.
    Thanks Again,
    Louis
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Don on Tuesday October 22, @05:12AM
    I think there is a flaw in your explanation. I don't think you should deduct 2 from the number of possible subnets. It should be deducted from the number of hosts (network ID and broadcast address) Take for example a subnet of 255.255.192.0 with network 10.101.192.0. You have 2 bits in the third octet for the network ID. Using your rule there should be (2x2-2=2) network ID's (64 and 128). So there should be the following networks: 10.101.64.0 through 10.101.127.254 and 10.101.128.0 through 10.101.191.254 What about 10.101.0.0 through 10.101.63.254 and 10.101.192.0 through 10.101.255.254? What do you think?
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Dearld Sanders on Friday December 06, @08:57AM
    I am taking a Cisco Routing class and we are doing subnetting I understand how to obtain the number of subnets and host per subnet but customizing a subnet mask is confusing. Help!! I need some clarity. Thanks in advance, Dearld Here is an example of a problem: Required Number of Subnet Segments: 16 Maximum Number of Hosts/Physical Segment: 1,500 Network Address: 128.199.0.0 Figure out the following: Proposed Custom Subnet Mask: Number of Subnets Supported: Maximum Number of Host ID per Subnet: Another example for a Class A Required Number of Physical Segment: 10 Maximum Number of Hosts/Physical Segment: 750,0000 Network Address: 12.0.0.0 Figure out the following: Proposed Custom Subnet Mask: Number of Subnets Supported: Maximum Number of Host ID per Subnet:
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Olof Krantz on Wednesday January 15, @11:14AM
    Thank you, I have now learned how to use binary, didn't understand that before.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Satish Halemani on Sunday January 26, @07:16AM
    Simply the best site where all my IP Addressing & Subnetting problems since last 1 year were solved within 1 hour of reading the contents.Thanks a Lot.Will certainly recommend it to all my friends.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Penile Torment on Wednesday January 29, @11:16AM
    Thank you so much. I was losing my BLEEPing mind looking for sombody to write an UNDERSTANDABLE explanation of how to work this out. All anybody ever wants to talk about is how they know more than you and bling bling. Well BLEEP THAT, I don't care I just want to comprehend and get on with my life. Thanks for not bieng an asshole.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by tony kurian on Friday May 23, @11:25PM
    I spinned my head to understand subneting. No esy way out. All websites did not kneel down this much to make a confused mind undertsnd. Thanx the one who explained it. Now i feel i should teach 10 more ppl this.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Miguel on Friday May 30, @03:07AM
    After searching for a long time finally someone explain it in English! Thanks Jason. Well done!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Miguel on Friday May 30, @03:07AM
    After searching for a long time finally someone explain it in English! Thanks Jason. Well done!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by DJ_SA on Wednesday July 09, @04:56PM
    Hi everyone out there, Thanx first for the author for writing such an understandable guide... However, I am still not clear about the -2 part in 2^n-2. I can understand -2 basically means to eliminate the first portion of the subnet (e.g. AAA.BBB.CCC.0~) and last portion (e.g. ~AAA.BBB.CCC.254)... but why elinate those two parts of the class? is it not usable? Thanx!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by venkat on Saturday July 19, @03:04AM
    Well i understood your Binary Calculation and what you wanted to explain but this gives rise to few more questions to my mind. Your example with subnet 255.255.255.240 Your math is understood that i will have 14 sub networks starting from 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.224 this means if i use Address Range: 205.112.10.17 through 205.112.10.30 the subnet will be 255.255.255.240 ? again for Address Range 205.112.10.33 through 205.112.10.46 the subnet will be 255.255.255.240 is it so?
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by arun verma on Sunday August 24, @11:09AM
    Jason, Your notes were excellent, they really made me understand the basics of subnetting. Thank you so much for the great notes. I am planning on doing my CCNA , could you please give me any notes you may have , I would greatly appreciate it. Thanks arun
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by micah on Wednesday September 10, @11:57PM
    Dude I was so confused with binary and that cleared everything up it is by Far THE BEST explanation of Binary I have ever heard you are Awesome. Thanks a Bunch.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Sarwat on Thursday September 11, @12:22AM
    Thanks Jason!! Thank you for explaining it in such a simple, easy-to-understand style. Hope to have more such posts from you.
    Sarwat
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Loretta on Sunday September 14, @02:34PM
    I just want to thank you for putting this out. I was having problem subnetting. This was so much easier on my brain. I kept getting stuck at one point. Keep up the training to other people. Thank you for your brain :) Loretta
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Doris L. on Wednesday October 08, @11:22AM
    This is great! I can honestly say, I really understand. Now I can move forward on my home assignment. Thank you!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Jesse on Monday October 27, @08:32PM
    Hi there, Iam just wondering why in a class C network the first and last subnets are not used. Making only six subnets, even though there are 8. In your article you say that you cant count all 1s or all 0s. So are you really saying that these whole subnets are usless because you cant supply a network address for the first subnet and you cant supply a broadcast address for the last subnet? Am i on the right track. ? It seems like a huge waste of address space. Is there a way that you can use this 2 subnets? I have heard that this may be possible through super subnetting. Am i on the track ? Great article by the way, helped heaps. Thanks Jesse
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Renegatu on Friday December 12, @07:03AM
    I have to congratulate you for this article ...
    it helped me very much ...

    Thank you, again...
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Jase on Wednesday December 17, @08:21PM
    OMG!!! YOU ARE A GENIUS!!!, If I knew where you lived I would buy you a hooker and a keg (if thats what ya wanted) For the first time in years I finally got subnetting! THANK YOU!
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Allen on Tuesday January 13, @12:28PM
    This is the best I have ever seen explaining subneting. Finally I get it. Thanks :-)
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by shashi on Sunday January 18, @09:41PM
    hello mate ur document is very nice i was so confused about subnetting but now i got it atleast C class. can u do a favour for me, can u send all classes subnetting document like this way u made this document. plz get back me soon. thanx.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by John on Sunday January 25, @03:33AM
    google search: understand binary wowzorz, you've enlightend a newbie. Everyone needs to send you a dollar. Thanks for the info I lub teh www. john
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Sehbaz on Wednesday February 04, @08:53AM
    Can anyone help answer these questions and how they got em. Thanks. 1) XYZ Company has a Class B address, 190.85 and uses the 3rd byte for the Subnet ID. (All 0s subnet not allowed) a. What is the maximum # of subnets on this network? ________ b. What is the maximum # of hosts on each subnet? __________ c. For the first subnet on the network: i. What is the network ID? ____________________________ ii. What is the broadcast ID? ____________________________ iii. What is the range of host IDs? ____________________________________________ 2) Instead of using one byte, Smith company decides to use ten bits for the Subnet ID. (All 0s subnet not allowed) a. What is the maximum # of subnets on this network? ________ b. What is the maximum # of hosts on each subnet? __________ c. For the first subnet on the network: i. What is the network ID? ____________________________ ii. What is the broadcast ID? ____________________________ iii. What is the range of host IDs? ____________________________________________
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Ranjith Udayshankar on Friday February 06, @12:32PM
    Hi.. My name is Ranjith.Your information about subnetting was really excellent.My best wishes to you guys........... Ranjith
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by luc on Wednesday April 07, @12:27PM
    Excellent tutorial! You could make a great teacher.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Gijs on Thursday June 10, @04:09AM
    hey man, this you explain this better than my ciscoteacher :)
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Raul Santana on Friday June 25, @08:44PM
    Your tutorial is absolutely excellent. I have been trying to understand this concept through other readings. Some writers like to complicate concepts to prove themselves to nobody. You did a wonderful job. I understood the concept in a very simple and straightforward way. You are a teacher. Thanks... Raul
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Numpty on Monday June 28, @04:34AM
    Dude...you saved my career...I'm studying my MCSE and damn near packed it in because I couldn't get my head around Binary... Paid $10K Australian to learn this stuff and didn't get it...and I go to the web and u've explained it for free...pure genious.... IT should have more layman explanations...or at least a link that says "Please put this geek speak into english for me..."
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Graham on Sunday July 25, @12:29AM
    Great post. Very helpfull at last i now understand binary & subnetting a lot more. Thanks for your time.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by John on Sunday April 03, @10:32PM
    lots of thanks to you.
    [ Add a Reply to this ]
    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by pmrussell892 on Tuesday October 25, @10:33PM
    WOW! That was great, I have tried reading up on that from other tutorials and just end up with. HUUH!! After reading your tut here i can now read binary numbering AND understand subnetting Thanx Bunches
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    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by INVALID on Monday October 12, @06:43PM
    OMG!!!!!!!!!!!!!!NOWAY, NOWAY, NOWAY, i actually understoo this thing. Impossible.... from all people this was REALLY hard for me. BUT i got it. 2Morow im making a PARTY. *******************ATTENTION********************* Guys dont just glance through the thing, read every single word. TRUST ME. It will make you understand. If you just glance real quick, you will get confused and not understand anything. SO READ CAREFULLY.
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    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Missy on Sunday November 21, @05:56PM
    All I can say is excellent job! This is the best explanation on subnetting that is clear and understanding. Please keep up the excellent job. I would like to follow your posting/material on my route to my CCNA.
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    Re: HOWTO: Understand Binary and Subnetting
    by Dan Garratt on Monday November 29, @05:55AM
    Aewesome thanks, finally explaned in a way I can understand! Keep up the good work!
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